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Differences in Mesopotamian and Egyptian Cultures

To the modern observer, the ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations likely seem very similar. Both had cities, writing, codes of laws, a relatively high standard of living, art, music, religion, literature, meticulous record-keeping and a fairly similar climate. However, they differed in important ways, especially in terms of religion, politics, culture, art and architecture.The ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures differed in several important ways.

Differences in ReligionBoth ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were polytheistic, and in both religions, priests played a crucial role, but the two differed in key ways.

The approximately 700 gods of ancient Egypt were often personifications of natural forces, such as the sun and the Nile. One important characteristic of ancient Egyptian religion was the Egyptians’ veneration of the pharaohs as reincarnated gods. The Egyptians are also famous for their elaborate view of the afterlife.

One major difference between the Egyptian and Mesopotamian religions was the “local” or regional quality of the latter; early on in Mesopotamia, specific deities came to be identified with specific locations. Another distinction was the hierarchical division of Mesopotamian deities, with four gods–those of heaven, earth, water and air– being the highest creative powers from which all lesser gods derived.

The Mesopotamians considered their temples, or ziggurats, links between heaven and earth.
Political DifferencesAncient Egypt had a highly centralized government. Its efficient bureaucracy and the pharaohs’ exalted position meant that rulers wielded great power over the entire country.

The governments of ancient Mesopotamia, in contrast, were more regional in character, with each city having its own government, and they included elements of what we would call democracy. Kings (of city-states) arose as the civilization developed, but elected assemblies had important powers, too, even over the kings. The Mesopotamians also held the law, and “covenants” or contracts, in high regard, as we know from the famous Code of Hammurabi, among other sources.

Ancient Egyptian pharoahs had more power than Mesopotamian kings.
Cultural DifferencesThe cultures of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were both quite similar and very different; both were predominantly agricultural societies dependent upon rivers–the Nile in Egypt and the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia. And in both, the vast majority of people were engaged in agriculture, but both also contained sophisticated urbanites, bureaucracies and educated and artistic classes and traded with other civilizations, .

The distinctive characteristics of Egyptian culture were a love of stability and order and a certain optimism or confidence, which many scholars attribute to the reliability of the Nile’s annual cycle. The centrality of religion in the Egyptian worldview and the development of elaborate hieroglyphic writing were also hallmarks of this civilization.

Life in the Mesopotamian city-states was generally more difficult and more uncertain, since for most of these city-states, the climate, the fluctuating relations with neighboring tribes and cities and the behavior of the rivers were less stable and predictable than in Egypt. Perhaps because of this, the ancient Mesopotamians surpassed the Egyptians in science, especially in technology and innovation. The ancient Mesopotamians’ cuneiform alphabet was another important achievement of this civilization.

The ancient Mesopotamian societies were more inventive, but less stable and prosperous than Egypt.
Differences in Art and ArchitectureThe famous architectural achievements of ancient Egypt reflect the highly centralized power, stability and bureaucratic efficiency of a country that could mobilize cheap labor in almost unlimited quantities. They were also made possible by the availability of stone in the region.

In addition to their magnificent stone architecture, the ancient Egyptians are known for their invention and use of paper, which they made from the papyrus reeds growing along the Nile. They also created a beautiful array of pottery and painting.

The comparatively scattered and diverse character of ancient Mesopotamia, and the relative paucity of natural resources, meant that Mesopotamia did not rival Egypt in terms of artistic and architectural achievements. Mesopotamian communities did produce sculpture, painting and pottery, but generally the art that has survived is smaller and less advanced than that produced in Egypt. Mesopotamia is known, instead, for its cuneiform tablets, its official seals and, above all, its temples. The distinctive beauty of the Mesopotamian ziggurat represents the highest artistic and architectural achievement of this civilization.

The ziggurat, or temple, is the most important artistic achievement of ancient Mesopotamia.

How to Sell Antique Jewelry

You can usually find a buyer for your antique jewelry by checking different places that buy jewelry, however, knowing how to get the best price for your antique jewelry is another matter altogether. Getting the best price starts by educating yourself about vintage jewelry and learning how much the jewelry is worth. The next most important factor is knowing exactly where to sell it to get the most for your jewelry.

Setting the Price

Look at the aesthetics objectively. Ask yourself if someone unrelated to you would genuinely be interested in wearing the piece of jewelry. Look through fashion magazines; many of them have upscale antique and current antique style jewelry. This will give you an idea if the jewelry you have is currently in style. If it is, selling it will be much easier. Be aware that when jewelry holds sentimental value for you it can often affect how much you want to sell it for, and it’s much harder to take into consideration how others would impartially value it. While the “Antique” style is currently in, it is only in to a certain degree. If your pieces are not in vogue you may be better off selling them for their metal or gemstones.

Consider the condition. Simply put, jewelry that is less worn will sell better than jewelry that has been worn frequently or is damaged. Pieces that have issues can be restored, which may improve the likelihood of selling them, but the restoration costs for major repairs can actually be higher than the money you will make from selling the piece once the repairs are complete. Plus, serious collectors often do not like pieces that have been restored, so restoration often reduces the value of the piece. If you are only replacing missing gemstones, by all means repair it, provided they are easy to replace and the stones from that period are readily available. The good part is that it’s unusual to be able to tell if a stone has been replaced if it was restored correctly.

If you know the piece is valuable, based on research and family history, it may make sense to have the jewelry appraised. Appraisals, especially written ones, are never free, especially from an organization such as the GIA (The Gemological Institute of America, formed in 1931) or even a local jewelry store, and can run in the hundreds of dollars for items worth thousands, so keep that in mind. And an appraisal for insurance purposes is always higher than what your jewelry is worth on a retail basis. Expect it to be less than half it’s replacement value when you’re trying to sell it. You are closer to a tenth of the insurance value. And remember, even when a piece is valuable people seldom want to pay what it’s worth. [1] Older appraisals can tell someone what stones are in the setting, the gold/platinum or silver content and design as well as age, but not current value. It’s always a good idea to keep all of your appraisals to show how the value has increased. And a good rule of thumb is to count on it’s doubling in value approximately every 7 years or so, based on how the fine metal markets are doing.

Give the jewelry a good cleaning. Unless otherwise instructed by an antique collector or an appraiser, you should clean the jewelry to make it look as appealing as possible. If you do not know how to clean a piece properly, though, you could end up damaging it. Taking the jewelry to a jeweler or other professional is your best option unless you are absolutely certain that you can clean the piece without harming it. However, be very cautious with using a jeweler to clean stones; if the stone has any inclusions, cleaning with a sonic machine or steam could destroy the stone-literally breaking it into pieces, especially diamonds.

  • The safest way to clean most jewelry is to gently scrub it with mild soap and warm water, using a soft toothbrush. Toothpaste can work on hard gemstones but it can scratch gold and softer gemstones such as opals. Even a toothbrush can cause marks on very soft high gold content jewelry and soft stones.
  • Never use chlorine to clean gold or gemstones. Ammonia is safe to use on hard gemstones but is too abrasive for many gemstones. If you are not sure what the stones are, since many look alike, such as aquamarines and topaz, you are better off using a soft cloth and dish soap with warm, not hot or cold, water. Rinse very well. The very safest way to clean antique jewelry is by using a microfiber cloth without any liquids at all.

Gauge the worth of gold by looking at the karat stamp, but be aware that many places can buy stamps and put incorrect stamps on jewelry. The karat stamp reveals how pure the gold is. A 24-karat gold piece is pure gold and will be worth approximately the current running price of gold per ounce, at the selling cost, not buying, which is always higher. Most jewelry, especially antique pieces, are only 9-karat pieces, meaning that they are only about 37.5 percent pure. As such, you will only receive, at most, one third the price of scrap gold. Other pieces can be as high as 23 karat gold and those pieces will be malleable to the touch and you can actually make marks in the jewelry itself. Finding 23k gold is unusual in the USA and Europe and much more common in Asia and India. It has a reddish look, compared to the yellow gold the USA and Europe is more used to seeing.[2]

  • Some very old gold does not have a karat stamp so you may want to test it to make sure that it is actually gold. Often when a piece is sized, or worn often the karat stamp may have been cut off or worn off making it impossible to tell the purity of the gold. Also, given the propensity for some makers to incorrectly mark gold you almost always want to chemical test to check the purity. Another quick way to test the jewelry is to expose it to a magnet. If it sticks, then it is not real gold. This test does not work on all metals, including platinum, which may or may not have a recognizable stamp.

Brush up on gem value. Knowing how valuable certain gemstones are can give you a good idea of how valuable your jewelry is. Of course , without official certification, you have no way of knowing just how valuable or high-quality a specific gem is, or even if it is real. That is where a jeweler comes in. They can tell you what stones are in your jewelry and if they are real. Even if you don’t get an actual appraisal you will have an idea of the jewelry’s value based on the stones. The types of stones used in your jewelry can also often help you date pieces so that you have more information for the buyers.

Choosing Where to Sell

Sell the jewelry to a jewelry shop. Almost any jewelry shop that buys jewelry will be willing to purchase yours, provided it’s in fairly decent condition. The jeweler will usually pay you up to 40 percent of the gold’s current scrap price for gold jewelry, and if the piece itself is signed by a maker such as Tiffany’s or another designer, they may pay you more for the jewelry itself instead of only paying you for the metal and the gems. It is best to talk to several jewelers before making a final sale, however, to ensure that you get the best offer. Be aware that most jewelry stores buy jewelry based on scrap prices, not the selling price of gold, so you will likely get approximately 1/10th to 1/7th the selling value of the item. Unless it has a tremendous provenance or value do not expect a very high return when selling vintage jewelry.

List the jewelry online. Create a listing for your jewelry on an auction website, free online classifieds website, or on a website that specializes in the sale of vintage or antique goods. Be sure to include plenty of pictures and to mention any certification that the jewelry has. Also make sure to sell a piece for a cost that is comparable with other similar pieces being sold on the same website.

  • Set up shop on your own if you have a lot of jewelry to sell. You can create your own webpage fairly easily, and it might be a better option for you if you have a large supply of antique jewelry that you plan on selling on a long-term basis.

Sell your jewelry for parts. If you are unable to find a buyer interested in your jewelry as a wearable piece, you may need to sell it as scrap. Mail-away gold-buying operations allow you to send your gold in and will send a check back to you in return, but while this is convenient, it pays the least of any of your options. So only do a “Gold Party” or Mail Order envelope as a last resort. Meanwhile, many coin shops are willing to purchase gold jewelry if it is pure enough, though, and will usually pay a higher price.

  • If your jewelry is in bad shape but the gems are in good condition, a jeweler may be interested in acquiring the piece so that the gems can be removed and reused in another piece, but this does not often happen.

Take the jewelry into a pawn shop. Pawn shops will test the jewelry to make sure that its metals and gemstones are real, and if everything is valuable, they are usually willing to buy the piece at fraction of it’s value, it’s how they make money, by buying pieces of jewelry for as little as possible. It is a quick way to make a little money, and as an added benefit, if you change your mind a day or two later, you can return to the pawn shop and buy it back (with interest).

How to Be a Stage Manager

Being a part of a live performing art production can be very exciting, and very fulfilling, especially if you play such a major role. Being a stage manager is being the central brain of any sort of production, whether it be a musical or a small choir concert at your high school. More so, it can look amazing on a resume for future jobs!

Know the qualifications and characteristics of a stage manager. The characteristics that qualify one to become a stage manager include the following: leadership and management skills; teammate; assumes responsibility; dependable; loyal; discrete; ability to maintain cool and collected; good sense of humor; and great communication skills.

Know the jobs of a stage manager. A stage manager is the key position of any production. They take blocking notations, note who is absent or who steps foot into a meeting, schedule meetings and call times, consistently communicate with the director and choreographer, writing up rehearsal reports, and pretty much being a part of every single aspect of a production.

Volunteer. Go to your high school or local playhouse. They are always looking for volunteers that have extra time on their hands. They don’t pay much (or none at all), so go into it with an open mind and open heart.

Start from the bottom. To be on your way to the top of the ladder, start out as a stagehand or stage crew, or even the spotlight. Starting as a spotlight operator, you will be able to hear every command the stage manager gives.

Wear black and dress conservatively. Wearing black is a must in all theaters; it keeps us from being too visible on the wings of the stage or in the side of the audience. Dressing conservatively is a must for most professional jobs (all theater jobs are professional).

Working every job before becoming a stage manager is a must. It will help you understand what each team member is doing and how difficult their job is. Also, if you are looking to be hired at a high-end theater, they look for people who know all the ropes. This can include light board, spotlight, lighting design, stage crew (or stagehand), assistant to the director, or an assistant stage manager.

Have time. You need to have enough time in your schedule to be early to every single meet (whether it be a meeting, rehearsal, dress rehearsal, or a performance), to set up for whatever the event, and to clean up, and lock up the meeting space.

Be assertive. Usually stage managers are said to be rude and snotty. But not every stage manager should be like this. You must remain calm, cool, and collected. However, stand your ground when needed. Do your very best to not snap.

Customer service! Yes, it exists in a theater, even at a high school. If someone complains about gum on the floor, assure them it will be taken care of immediately, and then get someone from your crew or the House Management crew to clean it up if you are in a tight spot.

If you don’t know what you are doing, act like you know what you’re doing. If you panic, so will everyone else. You want every single crew member to be calm in a pinch. Things will be solved quickly this way.

Take some classes at a community college or high school. Some classes include: Touring Production, Stage Lighting, and Theater Management.

What Types of Arts & Crafts Did the Aztec Tribes Produce?

The Aztecs ruled the Valley of Mexico from their main city, Tenochtitlan, during the 15th and 16th centuries. When the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the 16th century, they found a well-planned city with ordered streets and large buildings resembling pyramids and an advanced culture with its own writing system, mathematical system and an elaborate religion. Most of the arts and crafts created by the Aztecs had religious significance.

Aztec arts often had religious significance.

Aztec Religion

  • The Aztecs worshiped an intricate system of gods and the three most important were Huitzilopochtli, the god of war, Tezcatlipoca, the main god, and Quetzalcoatl, the god of civilization. Most Aztecs believed that the gods must be appeased and would not provide for mankind if mankind did not make sacrifices. Human sacrifice was practiced on a massive scale and also paid tribute to the gods through plays, food offerings and sporting events. The Aztecs believed that every day of the year had one good and one bad god overseeing it. Through a series of complex calculations, using calendars, humans could predict what would occur and how to appease the gods for the best outcome.

Pottery and Sculpture

  • The Aztecs used pottery for both practical and religious purposes. The pottery was often adorned with images of the gods and featured hand-painted images. Aztec temples contain elaborate sculptures made in bas-relief that depicted the gods or the images of those selected for human sacrifice. Aztec artisans also created small sculptures of people and animals made from crystals, particularly quartz and also used jade and obsidian. The Aztec calendar was an important part of the civilization’s religious beliefs and they kept both a solar and ritual calendar. The calendars were carved in stone, and circular bands were used to carve and depict the days of the year.

Painting and Writing

  • Aztecs created pictographs, which were small paintings that recorded events in the lives and history of the tribe. The tribe maintained scribes who used natural materials such as vegetable oils to make the drawings. Pictographs were also used in the Aztec mathematical system, with paintings of different objects representing specific numbers.

Ritual Arts

  • The Aztecs used masks that depicted important citizens in the community and gods, as well as headdresses in their rituals. Aztec craftsman decorated the headdresses with bird feathers and also used feathers to adorn the clothing of the nobility. Aztec warriors tattooed themselves with designs that represented the achievements of a particular warrior.

How to Draw 3D Art

Form is the element of art that describes the 3D qualities of an artwork. In drawing, you can create the illusion of form by using another element of art called value. Value is a range of darkness to light or, simply put, shading. Three-dimensional objects reflect light in the areas where they are closest to us. They recede into shadows in the parts that move away from us. Before beginning the steps below, take some time to look at things you like to draw. Notice in the mirror the shadows under your nose, the highlights on your cheeks. Notice how the tree trunk is darker on the edges and lighter in the middle where its roundness comes toward you.

Use value to create 3D effects in drawing.


  1. Sketch your entire drawing very lightly. Give yourself a clear map of where objects are on the page, but keep in mind that it is only a map. This sketching shows you the shape of your artwork just like a real map shows you the shape of a place. Determine the position of the light source. You do not have to draw your light source, just know its location. The parts of objects in your drawing that protrude the most and are closest to your light source will be the lightest. The parts that are farthest from your light source or from you as a viewer will be darkest. The parts that are in between will be medium.
  2. Shade gently in the areas that will have medium shading. You always can darken them more later on. Working in layers gives you the most versatility and reduces the need for erasing. For example, assume the sun is shining down on a tree from the top right corner of your page. The branches and section of the trunk that are getting some light off to the side, but are not directly facing that top corner, would have medium shading. Also, consider texture as you add your shading. Objects far away will have less visible texture than those close up. On the tree, you would notice the roughness of the bark and tiny details in the leaves as you got close.
  3. Darken the areas of deepest shadow. In the tree example, these would be the parts of the branches and trunk that are facing completing away from the sun. Continue to work with the object’s texture where shadows are not so dark that they obscure surface detail.
  4. Go back with a gum eraser and lift the graphite to create highlights or leave highlight areas untouched. On your tree, leaves and branches facing the sun would obviously be the lightest and show the greatest detail. You also can fill in gray tones and dark shading around the highlighted areas, making them stand out even more.

How to Identify Vintage Beads

Vintage beads are a collector’s item and can also be reused in beaded jewelry projects. Identifying vintage beads from modern beads is a useful skill, especially where the cost difference matters or you’re a collector of vintage items.In the case of this article, the term “vintage” is used to refer to any bead over 30 years of age and under 100 years. If the bead is over 100 years old, it would generally be considered to be an antique.

Sort the beads. If you’ve already purchased a bag of beads, sort them into sizes, colors, shapes, etc., to make it easier to work through them.

Examine the bead by sight. Be sure to do this under excellent light conditions, such as lots of natural light or a strong lamp. Use a magnifying glass or lamp if needed. When looking at a bead to identify its age, the following considerations are important:

  • Can you see a seam? If so, this can indicated a mold for a plastic bead, or pressed glass.
  • What sort of texture can you see? Some textures are clearly modern, whereas others might indicate age.
  • Is there a gloss, sheen, or other shiny element to the bead that could help to indicate its origin? Or, is there natural aging taking place, indicating a natural product that has been around for a long time? Don’t forget to check for chips (stone/glass), and erosion signs.
  • Is there any part of the bead’s coloring or finish worn away? This could indicate a reproduction with poor application of paintwork or finishing.
  • Are there any specific markings?
  • Check the hole size. A larger hole might indicate an older bead because of the lack of sophisticated cutting tools.[1] This doesn’t always hold, however, as craftspersons who took time and effort to create delicate beads would have been very careful.
  • Is the bead carved? Ivory, vegetable ivory, and bone were typically carved by hand in older times. Painstaking but definitely beautiful!
  • Are there any embellishments or settings accompanying the beads? The quality of these can help to establish the age, as older embellishments and settings tended to be of higher quality, and anything that needed to be held in was done so by the embellishment rather than by glue.

Examine the bead by feel. Plastic beads are modern, whereas glass beads were used in vintage times. Naturally, glass is still used today, so this isn’t the end of your testing, but discarding of the plastic beads is a good start when hunting for vintage. When feeling the bead, consider the following:

  • Is the bead cold to the touch? This is a good sign, indicating that it might be glass, stone, gemstone, metal, pearl, or shell. All of these materials were used to create vintage beads.
  • If it is warm, this is a sign that is might be plastic. Take care, however, as beads that feel warm could still be vintage but made from amber, nuts, vegetable ivory, wood, Bakelite (vintage plastic), bone and animal-derived ivory.
  • If the bead feels light, it’s more likely to be plastic than glass.

Do a sound test. Gently jiggle the beads in your cupped hands. When they fall together, what is the sound that they make?

  • A soft clinking or barely any noise at all can indicate plastic.
  • A heavier noise can indicate glass.
  • You will need to be familiar with the sounds of glass, etc.; just keep training your ear and you’ll seen get the hang of this method.

Look at accompanying paraphernalia. If your beads came with other items, sometimes these can help provide clues, especially if you inherited a jewelery box, or you bought an auction lot. Things to look for include:

  • Old photographs featuring family members wearing the beads.
  • Old bead-making items including old advertising/branding
  • Accompanying items are all very old as well
  • Newspaper cuttings with dates if you’re really lucky!
  • While none of these things are proof alone in your detective exercise, they can help build a picture of the possible age of the accompanying beads.

Check online and in books for pictures. You might be able to match the beads against photos that you can see of beads in bead books or on the many beading sites that now exist online.

If you’re not sure, the final test is simple. It’s basically down to what you want the beads for, how much you like the beads, how you came about them, whether or not they’re a gift or you have to pay for them, etc. Some questions to consider include:

  • Do you like the bead a lot? If so, purchase or use it.
  • Is the price reasonable enough that it doesn’t matter whether or not it’s vintage?
  • Are you not so taken with the appearance of the bead but just wanted it to be a part of your vintage collection? If so, leave it unless it’s really affordable.
  • Are you sitting on the fence? If so, leave it!
  • If you inherited them and want to know their value, seek professional advice.

Digital Technology & Its Impact on Filmmaking

Digital technology has changed the way we view films. New digital cameras capture sharper, clearer footage, and the technology has made special effects increasingly impressive. Digital technology has also become cheaper and more accessible.


  • The second half of the 20th century marked the advent of digital technology in film making. “Star Wars” was the first of its kind to use computer generated special effects. Disney’s “Tron” in 1982 was the first movie to use high resolution imagery. Seven years later, director James Cameron used computer generated images (CGI) in his live action film “The Abyss.” Ten years later, every scene in George Lucas’ “The Phantom Menace” included CGI.

Image and Sound Quality

  • Digital cameras increase image resolution which created higher quality pictures. Footage filmed with a digital camera is also easier to edit. Unlike analog film, it does not lose any signals during the editing process. Digitally recorded sound also has a higher quality than analog-recorded audio. The resolution is higher, and the sound quality does not deteriorate.

Special Effects

  • In the early days of film making, special effects were achieved through camera tricks. Those effects looked amateurish, and sometimes proved to be more humorous than convincing. Digital technology can create dazzling special effects that appear realistic and natural, and engineers use computers to insert them into the films.

Impact on Plot

  • The advances in special effects have impacted how movies are made. However, some people argue that as special effects get better, movie plots become worse. Critics claim that directors exploit digital technology so much that they ignore a weak plot. The result is a technically spectacular movie with a insubstantial story.

The Democratization of Filmmaking

  • Digital technology has made the art of film making more accessible. Decent quality digital camcorders are available to anyone, and editing programs can be accessed on a home computer. Websites such as You Tube provide global exposure for budding filmmakers. Films that would not have been before digital technology can now be seen all over the world.

How to Design a 3D Truck

The American truck is an automobile built on the idea of rugged independence. Trucks allow people to haul lumber, tools and farm equipment for jobs that are traditionally in isolated areas and under the open sky. For the example in this article, you will be learning how to design a truck with a a blue paint job. However, once you learn the basics, you can design any type of 3D truck.
Design a 3D Truck


  1. Draw a long rectangle for the body of the car. Draw a shorter rectangle to the left of the long one. Attach these two shapes with a straight line.
  2. Add a trapezoid to above and to the right of the front rectangle to create the front window. The top line of this trapezoid should be shorter than the bottom line. Add triangle to the right side of the trapezoid for the front-side window. Erase the top point of the triangle and replace it with a horizontal line.
  3. Draw a square directly to the right of the triangle for the back-side window. Add a horizontal line above these shapes. This line should start above the front window and continue just past the back-side window. Attach a diagonal line to this line so that it connects with the body of the truck.
  4. Draw two circles for the truck’s left-side wheels. Place one near the front left and the other near the back right. The back wheel should be smaller than the front. Add a curved line under the front left side of the truck to show the bottom of the front right wheel. Draw another curved line between the front and back left-side tires. This will act as the back-right wheel.
  5. Add details to the basic frame. Draw a small diagonal rectangle to the left-bottom corner of the front-side window for the side mirror. Add the grill with a rectangle in the upper middle of the front of the truck. Add two small rectangles to the left and right sides for the grill for headlights. Add the doors with vertical lines on the side of the truck. Place the first vertical line at the just below the side mirror. Add another vertical line running between the front and back windows. Add the last vertical line under the bottom-right corner of the back-side window.
  6. Draw four horizontal lines across the grill. Add a curved line above each wheel. Draw the door handles with a small thin rectangle inside a circle. Add one just below the bottom-right corner of the front side window and another under the bottom-right side of the back window. Draw the rims on the car with small circles inside the center of the wheels. Erase all the guidelines. Ink the entire drawing. Let the ink dry and erase the pencil.
  7. Color the entire body of the car baby blue. Color the windows, tires and inside of the grill black. Color the bumper, rims and metal of the grill light gray. Color the side-left headlight orange. Using the dark blue marker, add dark lines to the bottom of the body of the car. Add dark lines around the tires as well. This will help the car have realistic shading. Add dark gray lines to the middle, bottom and right side of the bumper to add depth.

Customs of the Huron Indian Tribe

The Huron Indian tribe was part of the great Iroquois-Huron family of tribes that existed in the American northeast prior to the arrival of European settlers. The government of this array of tribes was one of the earliest representative governments on the North American continent and served as a model for the later Iroquois confederation. Soon after the Europeans arrived, the Huron were dispersed and all but decimated. The tribe retains three reserves in Canada.

Society and Family

  • The social structure of the Huron, like all member groups in their confederation, was based on extended family groups. Membership in a given clan was based on a matrilineal line of descent. All property was owned by the matrilineal clan, rather than an individual. The typical Huron family group consisted of the entire extended family. All members of the family helped to rear children. At an early age, the family began to teach their children to use the skills they would need as adults.

    The government of the Huron as it stood on the eve of the European invasion was a confederation of clans and villages across the Eastern seaboard. Each village was responsible for handling its own individual affairs, but when a concern presented itself that affected the entire confederation, a council would make the decisions. The council consisted of male representatives, or “sachems,” from each of the clans. A given clan was generally made of several villages, connected by a hereditary relationship.


  • The Huron spoke the Wyandot language. This was one of the five languages spoken by the Iroquois-Huron family of tribes. The last native speaker of Wyandot died in the 1960s. There are currently efforts underway to revive the language and help to preserve the heritage of the Huron people.


  • The Huron religion was based on a belief of many spirits, or Oqui, which inhabit the natural world and have an effect on everyday human existence. Four very important figures appear in the Huron creation story. They are the Aataentsic, who is the mother of all human kind, along with Louskeha, a creative being, and Tawiscaron, who is responsible for death and disease. The fourth figure is the great turtle, who is responsible for rescuing Aataentsic by ordering the fishes to create land on which she can live.

    Healing is another important element of Huron culture. Sickness is believed to be both physical and spiritual, and so healers had to be adept at both physical remedies and communication with the spirit world.

Arts, Crafts, and Entertainment

  • The Huron’s artistic pursuits frequently coincided with religion. These included ceremonial painting, carving, and mask making. For entertainment, they enjoyed a variety of games and sporting events, including tobogganing and lacrosse.

What Is Digital Media Art?

Artistic expression has evolved through the ages of human civilization based on the tools we have at hand. Ten thousand years ago our ancestors painted on cave walls with natural pigments. Early Mediterranean peoples in Crete painted frescoes on the walls of their palaces. The development of art has progressed throughout the course of human history. The advent of computers and software art programs has simply created yet another set of canvases and tools through which artists can express themselves

This is an example of fractal art

Digital Media

  • According for the Centre for Digital Media in Canada, “media experiences made possible by the advent of primarily computer-mediated digital technologies” belong to category of media experiences known as Digital Media. In other words, Digital Media includes any picture, music file, video game or website produced using computerized or digital technology.

Digital Art

  • Works of Art which are created using computerized or digital technologies also belong to the Digital Media family. This Digital Media Art, or Digital Art as it is commonly called, presents itself everywhere in our society. The clip art used in printed fliers, the emergence of digital photography and the development of photopainting all serve as examples of Digital Art.

Digital Photography

  • According to the digital artist behind WithDigitalEyes, digital art falls into three formats: Digital photography, digital painting and fractals. Digital Photography involves the use of photographs, whether digital or from film, and computerized technology. “The artist uses image editing and special effects software to perform darkroom type manipulations.” Photopainting represents another form of Digital Photography, one that involves using painting software that allows the artist to infuse the picture with additional artistic expression.

Digital Painting

  • Works of art created completely within the bounds of computerized digital technology and image editing or painting software represent works of Digital Painting, the second main format of Digital Art. Images produced wholly within the computer environment may present as either two-dimensional or three-dimensional pictures, depending on the artist’s intent. According to SurrealPixelStudo, this form of art includes “hand-illustrated artwork which has been created by drawing brushstrokes with a pressure sensitive pen onto an electronic canvas, called a tablet.”


  • The third main form of digital art involves the use of mathematical algorithms to create fractal images involving repeating patterns of geometric shapes. According to Fractalus, a FractalArt FAQ website, Fractal art “seeks to reflect and emphasize the eternal expressions of order and chaos that permeates Nature’s structures and behaviors as well as the intricacies of humanity through the use of self-similar patterns and shapes.”

Watch College Pigskin Online – Its Simple To Anticipate Free

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The latest version, of course, has most of the predecessors’ incorporates. There is a single thing making it one of the most special, though – its hard drive capacity. With 160GB, it might possibly do a growing number of than its forerunners!

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Maybe you are inspired goes your own videos? Spark your playstation 3, playstation 3 or PC and show us whatever you can come plan. Also, if you know any other great GTA IV videos or other good for you to have fun in sport while looking forward to GTA V (rumored to be released next Fall), let us know within comments.

Super Smash Bros. Brawl – An activity that pits player against player AKA Mortal Kombat or any single or two player fighting or wrestling game, but the twist available? You play using some beloved characters from the Nintendo environment.

You the how they won in Dallas on Thanksgiving. They are besides happy moving the chains and getting the next first down. Effectively going for that throat that much as they’re able to. Against the Bengals, Drew Brees got that matchup on apparently for Meachem twice, the very one for their 52-yard touchdown.